INSTRUCTOR: Frank Rioux
TEXT: Chemistry, 3rd Edition, McMurry and Fay
|IV||Chem 334 Lab
|V||Chem 334 Lab
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Lecture: 80% of your grade will be based on quizzes, exams and the comprehensive final exam. Quizes will generally be announced one class period in advance, generally cover a specific topic and will last approximately 20 minutes. Exams will be announced one week in advance, will require the full 70 minute period and will test over all material covered since the last exam. Most likely there will be four quizzes and three exams. The date and time of the comprehensive final for this course can be found in the Class Schedule published by the Registrar's Office. Attendance at quizzes, exams and the final is mandatory. Make-up quizzes and exams will be given only for the most serious reasons.
On the average we will spend between three and four class periods on each chapter. For each chapter a number of problems at the end of the chapter will be assigned in class. These assignments will not be collected or graded, but they will be discussed in class. Working the assigned problems is the best way to demonstrate that you have mastered the material in the chapter. It is strongly recommended that you work them. There is an unusually strong correlation between course grade and problem working.
It is also extremely important to keep up with your chemistry assignments on a daily basis. Everyone recognizes that general chemistry is a challenging subject. Therefore, it is not advisable to leave the bulk of your study for the night before an exam or quiz. I will expect you to come to class on time and prepared. I welcome and encourage student questions during class, as this is the best way to insure that we are dealing with subjects that are of most concern to you. There are a number of interesting sites on the World Wide Web that can be reached from the following site.
Laboratory: 20% of your grade will be determined by your performance in the laboratory portion of this course. You must attend all assigned lab periods and turn in a report for each experiment. An important part of the laboratory work will be your laboratory notebook. A permanent (ink) bound record of your observations in the laboratory is necessary for you to be able to interpret your results and answer the questions associated with each experiment. The laboratory exercises scheduled for this semester are listed below.
Students who register for a laboratory course such as CHEM 123 are charged a $55 laboratory fee. This fee is assessed to cover part of the cost of maintaining the laboratories and the equipment in them. In addition, you are billed for a $15 breakage fee. Out of this fee will be taken the cost of the lab manual you have been provided with and safety goggles which you will check out on the first day of lab. Any items of glassware that you break during the course of the lab will also be charged against this fee. The balance will be refunded to you at the end of the semester.
The laboratory manual for this course contains a statement of the Chemistry Department's policy with regard to laboratory attendance and its relation to final course grade. The departmental policy is summarized below.
Completion of a lab or lab equivalent is defined as both attendance at the lab and completion of the requisite report. Failure to complete a lab or labs, without a valid reason, will have the following consequences on the final course grade in CHEM 123:
1 unexcused absence - not eligible for S/U grading in the course. Each additional unexcused absence will result in a final course grade reduction equivalent to half a grade, e.g., from AB to B.
An unexcused lab will result in an F (0 points) grade for that lab. This grade will be averaged in with the student's other lab grades for the semester when calculating the final laboratory grade.
Students having a valid excuse may reschedule a lab, if appropriate arrangements can be made, only if they notify the laboratory coordinator before the scheduled lab. The laboratory co-ordinator is Dr. Anna McKenna, who can be found in Ardolf Science Center 246, or reached by telephone at 5380, or by e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org
Chapter 20 - Transition Elements, and
Transition metals have many uses in our society. Iron is used for steel; copper for electrical wiring and water pipes; titanium for paint; silver for photographic paper and jewelry; platinum for industrial and automotive catalysts, to name just a few practical applications. In addition to these examples, transition metal ions also play a vital role in living organisms. Complexes of iron transport and store oxygen, molybdenum compounds catalize nitrogen fixation, zinc is found in over a hundred different molecules in the body, and cobalt is found in vitamin B12. Thus, one of our goals in this chapter will be to study the structure and function of transition metal complexes.
Assigned problems: 1-12 14 15 20 22 26 28 36 42 44 53 62 68 70 72 74 76 78 82 84 86 88 94 98 100 104 118.
Chapter 10 - Liquids, Solids, and Phase Changes
Of the three states of matter (gas, liquid, and solid) gases are the easiest to model (as we learned last semester when we studied the kinetic molecular theory) because the behavior of the gas molecules is random and the interactions between them are weak. Solids are also relatively easy to model because, while the interactions are strong, the degree of order and symmetry can be very high. Liquids are more difficult because they fall in between gases and solids, and have neither long-range order nor total chaos. In this chapter we will also be concerned with intermolecular interactions and the equilibria between the three states of matter as summarized in a phase diagram.
Assigned problems: 1-7 10-20 22 23 30 31 34 36 40 68 70 74 76 78 92 93 106 111.
Chapter 11 - Solutions and Their Properties
(Sections 1 - 4 only)
Most of the substances we encounter in daily life are mixtures: wood, milk, gasoline, wine, shampoo, steel, and air are common examples. When the mixture is homogeneous it is called a solution. Solutions can be gases, liquids, or solids. However, we will be concerned mainly with aqueous liquid solutions. Many essential chemical reactions, including those that support life, occur in aqueous solution.
Assigned problems: 3 5 59 60 66 67 and additional exercises provided by the instructor.
Chapter 12 - Chemical Kinetics
Thermodynamics can tell us whether a reaction is product-favored or reactant-favored. However, if a reaction is product-favored, thermodynamics says nothing about how long it will take the reaction to reach its product-favored status. This is the province of chemical kinetics. Kinetics is concerned with the rates of chemical reactions and the atomic and molecular pathways (chemical mechanisms) by which they occur. In a typical kinetic study experimental reaction rate data is analyzed to determine the rate law and then a reaction mechanism is sought which is consistent with the experimental rate law. Catalysis and the temperature dependence of chemical reaction rates will also be studied.
Assigned problems: 1-21 38 54 56 64 72 76 78 82 86 94 96 111 112.
Chapter 22 - Nuclear Chemistry (sections 3 and 9)
The nuclear model of the atom is a product of the brilliant alpha particle experiments of Rutherford. The nucleus is mainly the concern of physicists, however, since nuclear charge is one of the unifying principle behind the periodic table chemists also have an interest in nuclear stability and nuclear transformations. This chapter explores general principles and applications of nuclear technology and those of specific interest to chemist. We will be especially interested in the kinetics of nuclear decay and its relationship to the principles of chemical kinetics outlined in Chapter 12.
Assigned problems: 1-6 44 46 48 50 54 58.
Chapter 13 - Chemical Equilibrium (omit section 3)
Many chemical reactions are neither product-favored nor reactant-favored. They proceed to some intermediate equilibrium point. This equilibrium point can be located experimentally and interpreted by kinetic and thermodynamic models. At equilibrium the concentrations of the reactants and products remain constant with time. It is important to realize that this is a state of dynamic equilibrium in which the rate of the forward and reverse steps are balanced.
The kinetic approach to equilibrium will eventually be compared with the thermodynamic approach to equilibrium studied in Chapter 17. We will also study the response of systems at equilibrium to a changes in temperature, pressure, and concentration.
Assigned problems: 1-3 7-21 26 32 36 37 40 44 46 48 60 66 70 71 76 78 82 84 88 94 96 100 102 104.
Chapter 15 - Aqueous Equilibria:
Acids and BasesAcids and Bases
Acids and bases form an extremely important and large class of chemical compounds. There are some who would claim that most chemical phenomena can be classified as the reactions of acids and bases. We will examine the definitions given by Arrhenius, Bronsted and Lowry, and G. N. Lewis. We will also study the reactions and strengths of acids and bases. Carrying on from the end of last semester we will use the principles of chemical equilibrium to calculate the composition of acid and base solutions.
Assigned problems: 1-30 42 43 44 50 52 58 60 64 66 68 70 76 82 90 94 104.
Chapter 16 - Applications of Aqueous Equilibria (Omit sections
7, 8, and 9)
This chapter is predominantly an extention of the previous chapter on acid-base equilibria. After completing the study of acids and bases, the principles of chemical equilibrium are extended solubility equilibria.
Assigned problems: 1-14 20-30 44 52 54 60 62 64 66 70 72 90 92 94 96 98 100.
Chapter 8 - Thermochemistry: Chemical Energy
The First Law of Thermodynamics asserts that the amount of energy in the universe is constant. Stated another way the First Law says energy is conserved and, therefore, energy can be neither created nor destroyed; it can only be transformed from one form to another. There are no known exceptions to the energy conservation principle. Thus, when scientist do a proper energy audit the books must balance exactly. This fact provides the scientists with a powerful mathematical tool for the analysis of natural phenomena.
In this chapter we apply the First Law to chemical reactions. Because this is a review of material from last semester we will restrict our attention to Hess's Law, the concept of enthalpy of formation, and an introduction to the thermodynamic functions - entropy and free energy. Emphasis will be on sections 8.13 and 8.14.
Assigned problems: 12-18 20-23 81 82 86 88 92 100 104.
Chapter 17 - Thermodynamics: Entropy, Free Energy, and
The principle of energy conservation does not say all there is to say about the dynamics of energy. For example, some phenomena which are permitted by the first (energy flow from a cold object to a hot object, for example) do not occur. The Second Law of thermodynamics, which is based on the concept of entropy, provides a criterion for natural or spontaneous events, and distinquishes between those processes which are possible and those which are not. For spontaneous events the change in entropy of the universe is positive, while for impossible events the entropy change is negative. For processes at equilibrium the entropy change is zero. In this chapter we will use the Second Law to predict the direction of chemical change and to locate the equilibrium point for chemical reactions.
Assigned problems: 1-19 34 39 50 54 56 58 64 66 70 72 78 92 98 101 108.
Chapter 18 - Electrochemistry and Its Applications
Previously we explored the connection between radioactivity and first-order kinetics. In this chapter we explore the connection between thermodynamics and electrochemistry. This relationship is most cogently expressed by the simple formula: DG = - n F e.
Oxidation-reduction reactions that are product-favored can be harnessed in electro-chemical devices such as batteries and fuel cells to produce electrical energy. Oxidation-reduction reactions that are reactant-favored can be driven to products using electrical energy in electrolytic devices. In other words, the electron transfer in a spontaneous reaction can be harnessed to do useful work and a non-spontaneous reaction can be driven to completion by coupling it to a spontaneous process. In other words, in this chapter we emphasize the intimate relationship between chemical reactions and electricity.
Assigned problems: 1-6 46 48 58 72.
Chapter 21 - Metals and Solid-State Materials (Sections
Materials science has become an extremely important sub-field of chemistry. In this chapter we apply the chemical principles previously studied to metals, semiconductors, superconductors, ceramics, composites, and the newly discovered fullerene nanostructures.
Assigned problems: 2-11 46 52 70.
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